New Democracy Maps

Risk-Limiting Audits

Risk Limiting audits are a form of post-election audits that use statistical methods to analyze random samples of ballots and verify the accuracy of election results. In a risk limiting audit, the size of the random ballot sample is increased until there is statistical and objective confidence in the election results. Note: In 2020 and 2021, partisan officials hired unqualified individuals to conduct improper ballot reviews in states like Arizona in an effort to undermine trust in state voting systems and election officials. These efforts, which compromised the integrity of both ballots and voting machines, should not be characterized as audits, as they were designed and undertaken for illegitimate purposes.
United States Map
Washington New York U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico Guam Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands American Samoa New Hampshire Vermont Virginia Pennsylvania New York Maine West Virginia Ohio Kentucky Indiana Michigan Illinois Wisconsin North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Georgia Florida Mississippi Missouri Arkansas Louisiana Iowa Minnesota Oklahoma Kansas Nebraska South Dakota North Dakota Texas 33 Colorado Wyoming Montana Idaho Arizona Utah Nevada Oregon California Hawaii Alaska Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaware Maryland Washington D.C. New Hampshire Vermont
  • State conducts risk limiting audits (13 states)
  • State does not conduct risk limiting audits (37 states + D.C.)
Recommended citation: Movement Advancement Project. "Risk Limiting Audits" Accessed 06/01/2023.

Breakdown by Population

*Note: These percentages reflect the voting-eligible population, as reported by the United States Election Project.


40 % of population lives in states that conduct risk limiting audits


60 % of population lives in states that do not conduct risk limiting audits

Data current as of 05/31/2023
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Sexual Orientation Policy Tally

The term “sexual orientation” is loosely defined as a person’s pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to people of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or more than one sex or gender. Laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation primarily protect or harm lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. That said, transgender people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual can be affected by laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation.

Gender Identity Policy Tally

“Gender identity” is a person’s deeply-felt inner sense of being male, female, or something else or in-between. “Gender expression” refers to a person’s characteristics and behaviors such as appearance, dress, mannerisms and speech patterns that can be described as masculine, feminine, or something else. Gender identity and expression are independent of sexual orientation, and transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Laws that explicitly mention “gender identity” or “gender identity and expression” primarily protect or harm transgender people. These laws also can apply to people who are not transgender, but whose sense of gender or manner of dress does not adhere to gender stereotypes.

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