New Democracy Maps

Laws Protecting Election Officials Against Threats

Beginning during the 2020 election cycle, state and local election officials have been the targets of an alarming increase in violent threats and harassment. Much of this rise can be linked to the proliferation of unfounded claims of voter fraud and rigged elections. As a result, some states have put in place new laws that seek to explicitly protect the election officials who protect our democracy. These additional protections may include increased criminal penalties for threatening or harassing officials, interfering with officials in the performance of their duties, or allowing officials to have their personal information exempted from public records. Note: Generally applicable state laws may already be in place that can be used to protect election officials and prosecute perpetrators of threats or intimidation. This map is intended to track new state laws explicitly intended to protect election officials in response to the recent increase in threats and harassment.
United States Map
Washington New York U.S. Virgin Islands Puerto Rico Guam Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands American Samoa New Hampshire Vermont Virginia Pennsylvania New York Maine West Virginia Ohio Kentucky Indiana Michigan Illinois Wisconsin North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Georgia Florida Mississippi Missouri Arkansas Louisiana Iowa Minnesota Oklahoma Kansas Nebraska South Dakota North Dakota Texas 33 Colorado Wyoming Montana Idaho Arizona Utah Nevada Oregon California Hawaii Alaska Massachusetts Rhode Island Connecticut New Jersey Delaware Maryland Washington D.C. New Hampshire Vermont
  • State has a law protecting election officials against threats (16 states + D.C.)
  • State has not passed a law explicitly protecting election officials against threats (34 states)
Recommended citation: Movement Advancement Project. "Laws Protecting Election Officials Against Threats." Accessed 06/14/2024.

Breakdown by Population

*Note: These percentages reflect the voting-eligible population, as reported by the United States Election Project.


33 % of the population lives in states that have a law protecting election officials against threats


67 % of the population lives in states that have no applicable law

Data current as of 06/07/2024
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Sexual Orientation Policy Tally

The term “sexual orientation” is loosely defined as a person’s pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to people of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or more than one sex or gender. Laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation primarily protect or harm lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. That said, transgender people who are lesbian, gay or bisexual can be affected by laws that explicitly mention sexual orientation.

Gender Identity Policy Tally

“Gender identity” is a person’s deeply-felt inner sense of being male, female, or something else or in-between. “Gender expression” refers to a person’s characteristics and behaviors such as appearance, dress, mannerisms and speech patterns that can be described as masculine, feminine, or something else. Gender identity and expression are independent of sexual orientation, and transgender people may identify as heterosexual, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Laws that explicitly mention “gender identity” or “gender identity and expression” primarily protect or harm transgender people. These laws also can apply to people who are not transgender, but whose sense of gender or manner of dress does not adhere to gender stereotypes.

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